The Dukono Volcano on Halmahera

When our Coral Expeditions cruise arrived in the town of Tobelo on the northwestern arm of the island of Halmahera in October 2018, the Dukono volcano was erupting ash. This should not have been a surprise since research shows that the volcano has been erupting almost continuously  since 1978.

Dukono2

The Dukono volcano as seen from the Coral Discoverer

A rift in the earth’s mantle has caused a sea floor spreading zone between the islands of Sulawesi and Halmahere, causing subduction and related volcanic activity along the edge of both islands. There are sixteen volcanoes on the Halmahera volcanic arc, many of which are still active, and an equal number along the Sangihe volcanic arc.

MoluccaSeaGeologys

This seafloor map shows the central ridge, like the larger mid-Atlantic ridge, formed by the intrusion of oceanic magma. This intrusion causes spreading of the sea floor and the related subduction zones are shown by the seafloor trenches developed on each side of the central ridge . The water filled sediments that are subducted into the earths interior then become superheated, melt the surrounding rocks, and cause the volcanic activity.

Google Map

The related volcanoes can be best seen on this topographical map of Halmahera which shows a line of volcanoes formed along the western side of the island, including the clove islands of Ternate, Tidore, Moti and Makian which are offshore.

800px-Halmahera_Topography

The Dukono volcano is only 10 km from the town of Tobelo. While we were there it was continuously erupting ash, but fortunately the wind was blowing to the northeast and away from the town.

Ash cloud

The Dukono volcano as seen from the town of Tobelo

dukono

A closer view of the erupting Dukono volcano

 

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Asian Review of Books – Joseph Conrad’s EASTERN VOYAGES

Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) is perhaps the most famous example of a multicultural writer in the history of British literature. His novels have been translated, serialized, made into movies, and taught at numerous schools and universities throughout the English-speaking world and beyond. His multicultural credentials are impressive: he was born Józef Teodor Nalęcz (Ian Burnet misses this one in his recent study: it was the name of the Polish noble family to which Conrad belonged) Konrad Korzeniowski in Berdychev, Ukraine, then part of the Russian Empire and formerly a town in the Kingdom of Poland. His father Apollo was a Polish poet, translator of Shakespeare and a dedicated Polish patriot. Conrad’s first language was Polish, of course, and he learned Latin at school, but he added German, French and finally English to the list. He also knew some Russian but avoided using it for patriotic reasons. 

Joseph Conrad by George Charles Beresford
National Portrait Gallery

A good half of Conrad’s published books, including the better-known ones such as Lord Jim (1900) and An Outcast of the Islands (1896) were set in Asian lands, notably in what are now Malaysia and Indonesia, with Heart of Darkness (1899), perhaps his most famous work, being set in the Congo and Nostromo (1904) in South America. His very first novel in English, Almayer’s Folly, appeared in 1895, and is set in Borneo with a Java-born Dutch protagonist. Other places featured in his novels include London, Geneva, Marseilles, and St. Petersburg. Conrad also wrote “Prince Roman”, a story based on Polish history, but Poland itself does not play a part in his novels, which, together with his identification as an “English” writer, caused a certain amount of anxiety amongst his fellow-writers in Poland, who questioned his patriotism. In the end, as he himself put it, Conrad wrote in English because ‘it was I who was adopted by the genius of the language … which made me its own so completely that its very idioms, I truly believe, had a direct action on my temperament’.

Joseph Conrad’s EASTERN VOYAGES (Alfred Street Press, 2021)

Ian Burnet, an Australia-based traveler, writer and historian who is well-acquainted with the former Dutch East Indies, sets out in this handsomely-produced book to show how Conrad “was able to convert actual events of his own experience into enduring fiction,” referring to Conrad’s own statement that he had written his books “in retrospect of what I saw and learnt during the first thirty-five years of my life.” This being said, though, Burnet is aware that not all Conrad’s output is autobiographical, and he finds most of his material in the earlier works like Almayer’s FollyAn Outcast of the IslandsLord Jim and The Rescue (1920, but begun over twenty years earlier). These four novels, all based in Borneo, had characters based on people Conrad had met or known in his eastern voyages; Burnet works backwards with the material, reordering the narrative sequence and focusing on background material to definitively link Conrad’s life with the events of the novels, effectively building on Conrad’s own retrospective memory and quoting liberally from the novels to connect the fictional and non-fictional worlds.

The result is interesting—Burnet is not a literary scholar, but an enthusiastic and intelligent reader of Conrad, which makes this book ideal to read if one is curious about Conrad but not that well-acquainted with his books; it is not much use for scholars of Conrad. He attempts to describe a world with which the creator of the fiction (Conrad) interacts with his own past through his writings, and has unearthed illustrations to enhance his narrative. He traces the ships mentioned by Conrad to their real-world counterparts and gives biographical information on the actual people on whom Conrad modeled his characters.

The trading ship Vidar in Macassar Harbour
J.C.Rappard, Antique Maps of Indonesia

Most of this information may be found elsewhere, but Burnet is quite good at describing people and scenes, especially the latter, as he has been there himself, smelt the air, felt the heat and eaten the food. Prefacing Chapter 7, “East Borneo”, is a quote from Lord Jim in which Conrad writes about the Dutch and English traders’ “passion for pepper”, which “seemed to burn like a flame of love” within them and which made them “defy death in a thousand shapes; the unknown seas, the loathsome and strange diseases; wounds, captivity, hunger, pestilence, and despair.” For Burnet himself as a boy, though, the name Borneo suggested “Malay Sultans, White Rajahs, fierce pirates and beautiful princesses. Wild rivers and steamy jungles filled with tattooed head-hunters armed with poisoned blowpipes” [sic]. Well, Conrad serves up all of these and more, which lets us understand how the adult Burnet became absorbed with his books.

This having been said, there are some things about this book that are problematic. Burnet keeps formal analysis to a minimum, simply matching events and places to the novels and providing background information. He does, however, offer some opinions and quote contemporary reviews. He observes, for example, that Conrad’s protagonist Willems in An Outcast of the Islands is “a victim of his own illusions, of his search for material gratification, and finally his obsession with the beautiful and erotic Aissa.” He suggests that Almayer was “a failure, an anti-hero”, and that “for that time” (1899) Almayer’s Folly “had a very un-English perspective.” For a Conrad scholar or someone who is well-acquainted with the novels, these observations are commonplaces, but it has to be remembered that this isn’t a work of literary criticism, however frustrating it is to readers who want a bit more.

These reservations aside, I would nonetheless recommend this book to readers who are not familiar with Conrad,  but are seeking an informative introduction to this difficult writer’s life and works.

John Butler recently retired as Associate Professor of Humanities at the University College of the North in The Pas, Manitoba, Canada, and has taught at universities in Canada, Nigeria and Japan. He specializes in early modern travel-literature (especially Asian travel) and seventeenth-century intellectual history. His books include an edition of Sir Thomas Herbert’s Travels in Africa, Persia and Asia the Great (2012) and most recently an edition of Sir Paul Rycaut’s Present State of the Ottoman Empire (1667) and a book of essays, Off the Beaten Track: Essays on Unknown Travel Writers.

Please note that EASTERN VOYAGES was not written as an academic text. As stated in the very first sentence of the book ‘The life of Josef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski reads like an adventure story, an adventure story written by somebody like Joseph Conrad’. So perhaps it is best described as an adventure story with a literary twist. For some reason John Butler has mainly chosen to review the book from the point of view of an academic text which is surprising but it goes to prove that at least in this case ‘once an academic then always an academic.’

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Best-Selling Dutch Biography Books

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Indonesian Independence and the Indonesian Flag – Sang Merah Putih

To celebrate August 17th, which is the anniversary of the Indonesian Proclamation of Independence, there will be millions of Indonesian flags flying over the Archipelago.

Almost every house, every street and every building will be flying the flag and continue flying the flag for the next month.

Soekarno together with Rear-Admiral Maeda and  Hatta reads out the Declaration of Independence on the front steps of his house on 17th August 1945
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is dscn0682-copy.jpg
The Declaration of Independence, 17th August 1945

After announcing the Declaration of Independence the Indonesian flag was raised outside Soekarno’s house. The flag was hand sewn by Soekarno’s wife Fatmawati and after the raising of the Indonesian flag the group sang the Indonesian National Anthem ‘Indonesia Raya’.

Ceremony of raising the Indonesian flag after the Declaration of Independence, 17 August 1945

During the Java war (1825-1830 AD) Prince Diponegoro wore a red and white banner in his struggle against the Dutch. Later, the colors were revived by students and then nationalists in the early 20th century as an expression of nationalism against the Dutch The red and white flag was used for the first time in Java in 1928. Under colonial rule, the flag was banned from use. The flag was officially used as the national flag of Indonesia on August 17,1945 when independence was declared and officially used since then.

Perhaps the most celebrated incident related to the flag occurred one month later in Surabaya on 19 September 1945, when Dutch citizens released from Japanese detention raised the Dutch flag over the former Hotel Oranje which under the Japanese occupation was known as the Hotel Yamato. This incensed the pro-nationalist Indonesian youth who climbed the hotel tower and tore away the lower blue portion of the Dutch flag to change it to the red-and-white Indonesian Flag.

The flag incident at the Yamato Hotel

Historical Plaque from what is now called the Hotel Majapahit

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The Banjarmasin Diamond

The rivers of East Borneo, such as the Kapuas, Seruyan, Barito (Banjar), Mahakam, Berau, Kayan and Sesayap were the geographic highways that provided the only means to transport people and goods through the dense forests and mountains of Borneo and provide a connection between the coastal Malays and the Dyaks of the interior.

This early version of a map of Borneo by Herman Moll from 1732 shows Banjarmasin on the south coast of Borneo, at the mouth of what is here called the Banjar River and surrounded by the Pepper Country.

Map of the East Indies, Herman Moll, 1732, Bienecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

The Pepper Country which according to Joseph Conrad was where:

The seventeenth-century traders went there for pepper, because the passion
for pepper seemed to burn like a flame of love in the breast of Dutch and
English adventurers about the time of James the First. Where wouldn’t they
go for pepper! For a bag of pepper they would cut each other’s throats without
hesitation … the bizarre obstinacy of that desire made them defy death in
a thousand shapes; the unknown seas, the loathsome and strange diseases;
wounds, captivity, hunger, pestilence and despair.


– Joseph Conrad, Lord Jim

The port of Banjarmasin, Carl Schwaner, 1854, Amsterdam, van Kampen

The Dutch East India Company were mainly interested in the pepper trade but Banjarmasin was also the outlet for all the natural forest products which came down the river as well as gold, tin and diamonds.

In 1837 coal was also discovered in the interior and now the Dutch took an interest in coal mines, thus increasing Banjarmasin’s economic and strategic importance. The Dutch managed to involve themselves in a quarrel over the choice of a new Sultan by providing military support to the candidate of their choice and when he did became Sultan he served as their vassal. The main problem was that, according to traditional law, the new puppet Sultan was never recognised as legitimate. During a people’s revolt in 1859, Dutch troops were required to put down the rebellion and the struggle caused considerable loss of life and immense damage to property in parts of southern Borneo. By 1862 Dutch troops had won the upper hand, the Sultanate was disbanded and the Dutch gained direct control.

As part of their war booty the Dutch seized the Banjarmasin Diamond. Once owned by the Sultan of Banjarmasin, the stone was a state heirlooms and a symbol of the Sultan’s sovereignty. After the Sultanate was abolished the rough diamond was sent to the Netherlands, where it was cut into a multifaceted rectangle of 36 carats and is now displayed in the Rijksmuseum.

Rough, this diamond was assumedly around 70 carats.  When the diamond workers turned the gem into a 36-carat polished stone, it lost almost half its size. They cut the diamond into a rectangular(ish) shape. A cutting loss of almost 50% is a lot, but not unusual for a diamond this shape and size. The Rijksmuseum describes it as: “A white, slightly square cut diamond of thirty-six carats from Banjarmasin.” Other characteristics are:

  • Size: l 2.1 cm × w 1.7 cm × h 1.4 cm
  • Weight: 7.65 gr
The Banjarmasin Diamond, Rijksmuseum

The Rijksmueum Museum caption reads, “This diamond is the spoil of war. This diamond was once owned by Panembahan Adam, Sultan of Banjarmasin (Kalimantan).”

The Banjarmasin Sultanate was restored in 2010 and the Sultan would like the diamond back. Let’s see what happens.

The Sultan of Banjarmasin

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Map History Books of 2020 – The Tasman Map

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Where in East Borneo is the real location of Joseph Conrad’s fictional trading post of ‘Sambir’ and ‘Patusan’?

About half of everything Joseph Conrad ever wrote takes place in South-East Asia, six novels, plus more than a dozen short stories and novellas, which are all evocative of the exotic east. Although his love was for sailing ships and the world’s great oceans, his voyages on the tramp ship Vidar to the Java Sea, the Macassar Strait and the east coast of Borneo, inspired more of Conrad’s fiction than any other period in his life.

His Borneo books – Almayer’s Folly, An Outcast of the Islands, Lord Jim and The Rescue were all based on the places he had visited, the stories he had heard, and the people he had met during his voyages in the Indonesian archipelago. It is his excellent visual memory of people, landscape, estuaries, rivers, climate, jungle foliage, commerce, local politics, religion and dress that bring his fictional world to life.  

In his novel Almayer’s Folly, Joseph Conrad describes the location of the village and trading post he calls Sambir as –

Forty miles up a river on the east coast of Borneo. A river and a settlement which he described as ‘One of the last, forgotten unknown places on earth’.

In his novel Lord Jim, Joseph Conrad describes the location of the village and trading post as –

Patusan is a remote district of a native-ruled State and the chief settlement bears the same name. At a point on the river about forty miles from the sea, where the first houses come into view, there can be seen rising above the level of the forest the summits of two steep hills.

For whatever reason, Joseph Conrad avoided directly naming the real location of this village and trading post so it took some time for determined literary detectives to track down the actual location of the fictional villages of ‘Sambir’ and ‘Patusan’ in remote East Borneo.

The first clue is the Vidar, the trading ship on which Joseph Conrad served as first mate, which he describes as being based in Singapore and having an Arab owner.

She was an Eastern ship, inasmuch as then she belonged to those seas. She traded among dark islands on a blue reef-scarred sea, with the Red Ensign over the taffrail and at her masthead a house-flag, also red, but with a green border and with a white crescent in it. For an Arab owned her, and a Syed at that. Hence the green border on the flag.

                                                                                                    Joseph Conrad, The Shadow-Line

A search of the of the records reveals the following:

Joseph Conrad made four trading voyages to East Borneo on the Vidar from 1887 to 1889. The Singapore shipping records would have shown the destinations of the Vidar, including Tanjung Redeb on the Berau River and its trading voyage would be as shown on the map below:

Map by Ian Burnet

The coast of Patusan is straight and somber, and faces a misty ocean. Red trails are seen like cataracts of rust streaming under the dark-green foliage of bushes and creepers clothing the low cliffs. Swampy plains open out at the mouth of rivers, with a view of jagged blue peaks beyond the vast forests. In the offing a chain of islands, dark, crumbling shapes, stand out in the everlasting sunlit haze like the remains of a wall breached by the sea.

Joseph Conrad, Lord Jim

Map by Ian Burnet

The Berau is the main river up from the coast which Joseph Conrad named the ‘Pantai’ in Almayer’s Folly and An Outcast of the Islands, and the ‘Patusan’ in Lord Jim. The settlement of Tanjung Redeb, forty miles up the river, lies on a promontory at the confluence where the Segai River to the north and the Kelai River to the south join to form the Berau. Opposite on the north bank of the Segai is the settlement of Gunung Tabor and the old Rajah’s palace. Opposite on the east bank of the Kelai is the settlement of Sambaliung, where according to Conrad, the Bugis potentate Lakamba had built his stockade and where Syed Abdulla established his wharf and trading post. Joseph Conrad provides us a description of the settlement through the eyes of Kapar Almayer:

From the low point of land where Almayer stood he could see both branches of the river. The main stream of the Pantai was lost completely in darkness for the fire at the Rajah’s had gone out altogether, but up the Sambir Reach his eye could follow the long line of Malay houses crowding the bank, with here and there a dim light twinkling through bamboo walls, or a smoky torch burning on the platforms built out over the river. Further away, where the island ended in a low cliff, rose a dark mass of buildings towering above the Malay structures.  Founded solidly on a firm ground with plenty of space, starred by many lights burning strong and white, with a suggestion of paraffin and lamp-glasses, stood the house and the godowns of Abdulla bin Selim.

Joseph Conrad, Almayer’s Folly 

Port Scene by Mori Kinsen

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EASTERN VOYAGES – Book Launch

The Book Launch for Eastern Voyages was held in front of the ‘Windjammers Statue’ at the Australian National Maritime Museum with the 1874 barque James Craig in the background. Commodore Christopher Rynd kindly performed the honours and below is the text from his speech:

“I grew up in the Far East and can recall from the early age hearing of Joseph Conrad. Later on, in going to sea and learning my business as a seaman officer in ships of trade I came to appreciate Conrad as the author who wrote with an authenticity that only one who has experience at sea and in command can.

In this book Ian brings his own unique knowledge of the geography and history of the Indonesian archipelago, of Malaya and Singapore, to enrich Conrad’s experiences and stories. Already the author of five books, the result of his own life and travels in this part of the world and the study of its history, Ian Burnet brings to this this book on Conrad and his Eastern Voyages a renewed appreciation of Conrad whose personal history is as fascinating as any character in his stories.

Ian’s book has made me appreciate afresh what an astute  and perceptive observer Conrad was and of his writing style, crafted with the labour that only another author can appreciate. As a naturalised British citizen he wrote from a unique perspective of an outsider and wrote so well, in what was his third language, that his books were considered as English classics within his own lifetime.

As Ian Burnet has written in the first sentence of this book ‘The life of Josef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski reads like an adventure story, an adventure story written by somebody like Joseph Conrad’.

I warmly commend this book to you. And declare it launched”

Photographs are courtesy of Cathy Morrison and John Cardelli

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Alfred Street Press

Alfred Street Press is the publishing arm of Ian Burnet Books and was established to publish the book Joseph Conrad’s EASTERN VOYAGES – Tales of Singapore and an East Borneo River.

This book tells the story of Joseph Conrad’s life at sea on the classic three-masted, square-rigged sailing ships before they were ultimately replaced by steamships. Joseph Conrad’s first books – Almayer’s Folly, An Outcast of the Islands, Lord Jim and The Rescue were all set in East Borneo and this book describes how these first books are related to the people he met and his own experiences as first mate on a trading vessel based out of Singapore.

The book can be purchased as an ebook from the usual online retailers or as a print book through the shop at :

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Or if you are a retailer from:

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Fact from Fiction – A Review of Conrad’s EASTERN VOYAGES

For many of us, Joseph Conrad is a famous English author known for such books as Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness, on which the films of the same name are based. Those of us who live in Sydney may, on seeing his plaque on Circular Quay’s writers walk, have been surprised that he had visited our shores.

However, Joseph Conrad’s Eastern Voyages, the book under review, has many more surprises for us, and particularly for those with an interest in Indonesia. Far from being an “English author”, he was in fact born in Poland in 1857 and given the name of Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski. His childhood was one of severe deprivation: his father was a Polish patriot and the family was arrested by the Russians and banished to the severe climate of northern Russia. The hardship of his childhood included experiencing the death of his mother, his father’s severe ill health and his own ill health. The rest of his youth was spent in the Russian-held part of Poland and later in France. From an early age, Józef had his heart set on becoming a mariner. His life as a sailor began with four years on French ships before, at age of 21, he arrived in England in 1878 with minimal English and enlisted in the British merchant marine. For the next fifteen years Joseph Conrad, the name he had assumed, worked on a variety of ships as crew member (apprentice, able-bodied seaman), and then as third, second and first mate, until eventually achieving captain’s rank.

Joseph Conrad sailed to Sydney as an ordinary seaman on The Duke of Sutherland in 1879

He spent much of his time as a mariner sailing in Southeast Asia between Singapore and Borneo. From very early on he came to love the sailing boats of the era and, later, captaining clippers between Europe and Australia. Many times, his life led to great adventures such as when he signed on with a Belgian company and travelled far inland into Africa up the Congo River, the experience that provided the basis of his novel Heart of Darkness. His intimate knowledge of the Indonesian archipelago arose from his four voyages as first mate on the steamship Vidar to a small trading post some forty miles up a river on the east coast of Borneo.

The trading ship Vidar docked in Macassar, J.C.Rappard 1883

Burnet’s fascinating study shows how Conrad’s writings drew on his own experience and how the characters he met, particularly in Indonesia, became central to the wonderful novels that gave him such a central place in English literature. It is all the more astounding when one realises that English was in fact Conrad’s fourth language, after Polish, French and Russian. Through historical research and Conrad’s autobiographical writings, particularly A Personal Record, Burnet has managed to document the voyages the author made and the people he met that were later woven into his many novels. Indeed, in a masterful and incisive manner, Burnet analyses events and characters from Conrad’s own life to show how they inspired and indeed are reflected in the events and characters of Conrad’s The Rescue, Almayer’s Folly and An Outcast of the Islands.

Given the length of time Conrad spent in Borneo and in the Indonesian archipelago, it is clear he knew Malay, the lingua franca of the many linguistic communities of the islands, and was aware of colonial events and had met many local characters, including the descendants of James Brooke the Rajah of Sarawak. It is fascinating to see the way that the historical alliances and events of the colonial era are reflected in Conrad’s writing, all the more that he wrote his books from memory after he retired to England in 1893 at age 36. However, his desire to become a writer in later life is reflected in the fact that, during his many years at sea, he carried with him an outline manuscript for his first novel, Almayer’s Folly.

Aided by Conrad’s autobiographical writings, Burnet masterfully manages to blend Conrad’s own life experiences with the plots of his novels so that we have a real sense of daily life and adventure in Southeast Asia, and particularly the Dutch East Indies. The resulting book is highly recommended and will lead many of us to read or re-read Conrad’s books, with new understanding.

This review by Dr. Ron Witton is to be published in Our Indonesia Today.

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Joseph Conrad’s EASTERN VOYAGES – Tales of Singapore and an East Borneo river

The life of Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski reads like an adventure story, an adventure story written by somebody like Joseph Conrad.

During the twenty years from the time that he left Poland in October 1874 until he signed off his last vessel in January 1894, Konrad had worked in ships. For fifteen of those years he served under the Red Ensign as a British merchant seaman and Konrad describes it as ‘the finest day in his life’ when in 1880 and at the age of twenty-three he received his certificate as a second mate in the British Merchant Navy. Eventually Konrad would make his home in England and apply for British nationality which was granted in 1886.

Konrad’s favoured destination was Asia, the bustling transit port of Singapore, the remote islands and ports of the Dutch East Indies. It was from Singapore that he made four voyages as first mate on the steamship Vidar to a small trading post which was forty miles up a river on the east coast of Borneo. A river and a settlement which he described as ‘One of the last, forgotten, unknown places on earth’ and where he would meet the people, places and events that he describes in his first novels.

Towards the end of his sailing career, at the age of 35, with no ship and no immediate prospect of a command, his days were empty. Idle in London he began to write of his experiences of the people he had met at that isolated trading post on the Berau River in Eastern Borneo. The idea of writing an entire book was then outside his imagination, but the characters he had met in Borneo began to visit him in the front sitting room of his furnished apartment in a Pimlico square.

About half of everything Joseph Conrad ever wrote takes place in South-East Asia, six novels, plus more than a dozen short stories and novellas, which are all evocative of the exotic east. Although his love was for sailing ships and the world’s great oceans, his voyages on the tramp ship Vidar to the Java Sea, the Macassar Strait and the east coast of Borneo, inspired more of Conrad’s fiction than any other period in his life. His Borneo books – Almayer’s Folly, An Outcast of the Islands, Lord Jim and The Rescue were all based the places he had visited, the stories he had heard, and the people he had met during his voyages in the Indonesian archipelago. It is his excellent visual memory of people, landscape, estuaries, rivers, climate, jungle foliage, commerce, local politics, religion and dress that bring his fictional world to life. 

In Almayer’s Folly Conrad introduces us to the anti-hero of his first two novels, who is based on a Dutchman born in Java known as Charles Olmeijer, the resident trader of that small outpost on the Berau River. He left a deep impression on Conrad because of the vastness of his ambitions compared to his derelict appearance and his actual situation. Conrad later wrote that ‘If I had not got to know Almayer pretty well, it is almost certain there would never have been a line of mine in print’.

Almayer’s Folly, was published in 1895 under the anglicised name of Joseph Conrad and he then devoting himself full-time to writing. He wrote slowly, always struggling with deadlines and anxious about money. Although his work was frequently interrupted by agonising periods of writer’s block and persistent illnesses, he went on to write some 20 novels as well as some of the world’s greatest short fiction. His books were a critical success but he only obtained commercial success late in his career after the publication of Chance, one of his few novels that had a happy ending.

Conrad was important because he was an outsider who had not grown up with the popular myths of the glory of the British Empire. He became British but viewed the world from a non-British perspective and was one of the first English writers of the period to pierce the popular assumptions of superiority that had grown up around the British Empire, colonials and colonial life. The place he now occupies in letters is as the English critic Walter Allen wrote – ‘Conrad’s best work represents a body of achievement unequalled in English fiction this century by any writer except Henry James’. While Henry James wrote in a letter to Conrad – ‘No one has known – for intellectual use – the things you know, and you have, as the artist of the whole matter, an authority that no one has approached’. Conrad’s greatness lies in his ability to create an absolutely convincing illusion of reality and for Joseph Conrad his greatest honour was to have his novels regarded as English classics in his own lifetime and despite the fact that English was not his native language.

My interest in Conrad began when I arrived in Indonesia from the sea and as a young man around the same age as Joseph Conrad. During my years of residence and my travels throughout the archipelago, I, like Conrad, fell in love with its peoples, its extraordinary mixture of races, religions, languages, cultures and its endlessly fascinating history.

In his writing Conrad was able to convert actual events of his own experience into enduring fiction and he once said that everything about his life can be found in his books. Because the material for his tales of Singapore and a Borneo River are mainly autobiographical, in the following chapters I am able to use a mixture of my words, together with his, to tell this story of Joseph Conrad’s eastern voyages and how he made the connection between his own life experiences and the characters and events in his first novels.

Almayer’s Folly, The Outcast of the Islands and The Rescue are often referred to as the Lingard Trilogy because of the continuing role of Tom Lingard, the ‘Rajah Laut’ or ‘King of the Sea’. It should be noted that the narrative sequence of these novels is in the reverse of the order in which they were written. In the latter part of this book I have taken the liberty to place the parts of these novels into their proper narrative sequence and focus on the back-story of his characters, which will, I hope, make it easier for readers to discover or rediscover Conrad’s genius.

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