The Banda volcano (Gunung Api or Fire Mountain) is a perfectly conical mountain that rises 656 meters above sea level, and is about 3 kilometres wide. The nutmeg island of Banda has been a key location in the spice trade and historical eruptions have been recorded there since the late 1500s. These have been relatively low-level, although there have been the occasional larger eruptions with the lava flow reaching the coast as can be seen on this photograph.
After 97 years of dormancy a violent eruption shook the Banda islands in May 1988 as Gunung Api exploded. A column of ash billowed 3 kilometres into the air and tremors were felt every few minutes. On the day of the eruption, people began moving to further islands, eventually about 10,000 people of the 16,000 population living in the Banda islands were evacuated during the eruption, which finally ended in August 1988. The photograph below shows the Dutch church in Banda with the erupting Gunung Api and the huge ash column in the background.
Marine scientists have monitored the coral colonization on 3 locations adjacent to the lava flow and in just 5 short years, the hardened andesitic flow has supported over 120 species of coral. A larger diversity and abundance than the adjacent reef not affected by lava.
Now, 30 years later, coral growth around the lava flows from Gunung Api not only matches, but exceeds the development that normally takes coral formations over 70 years to achieve, making it the most rapid growing coral in the world. The reason is probably the heat or mineralization generated by the lava flow.
Thanks to Carleen Devine for permission to use her excellent underwater photographs.